Mixing alters the lytic activity of viruses in the dark ocean

Author(s)
Christian Winter , Nicole Köstner , Carl-Philip Kruspe , Damaris Urban , Simone Muck , Thomas Reinthaler , Gerhard J Herndl
Abstract

In aquatic habitats, viral lysis of prokaryotic cells lowers the overall efficiency of the microbial loop, by which dissolved organic carbon is transfered to higher trophic levels. Mixing of water masses in the dark ocean occurs on a global scale and may have far reaching consequences for the different prokaryotic and virus communities found in these waters by altering the environmental conditions these communities experience. We hypothesize that mixing of deep ocean water masses enhances the lytic activity of viruses infecting prokaryotes. To address this hypothesis, major deep-sea water masses of the Atlantic Ocean such as North Atlantic Deep Water, Mediterranean Sea Overflow Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, and Antarctic Bottom Water were sampled at five locations. Prokaryotic cells from these samples were collected by filtration and subsequently incubated in virus-reduced water from either the same (control) or a different water mass (transplantation treatment). Additionally, mixtures of prokaryotes obtained from two different water masses were incubated in a mixture of virus-reduced water from the same water masses (control) or in virus-reduced water from the source water masses separately (mixing treatments). Pronounced differences in productivity-related parameters (prokaryotic leucine incorporation, prokaryotic and viral abundance) between water masses caused strong changes in viral lysis of prokaryotes. Often, mixing of water masses increased viral lysis of prokaryotes, indicating that lysogenic viruses were induced into the lytic cycle. Mixing-induced changes in viral lysis had a strong effect on the community composition of prokaryotes and viruses. Our data show that mixing of deep-sea water masses alters levels of viral lysis of prokaryotes and in many cases weakens the efficiency of the microbial loop by enhancing the recycling of organic carbon in the deep ocean.

Organisation(s)
Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography , Research Platform Rhythms of Life
Journal
Ecology
Volume
99
Pages
700-713
No. of pages
14
ISSN
0012-9658
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2135
Publication date
2018
Publication status
Published
Peer reviewed
Yes
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
106021 Marine biology
Keywords
Journal Article
Portal url
https://ucris.univie.ac.at/portal/en/publications/mixing-alters-the-lytic-activity-of-viruses-in-the-dark-ocean(3e464205-2cb5-4580-a400-6009fa466a36).html